Alginate Nanoparticles as a Promising Adjuvant and Vaccine Delivery System
1Department of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Zipcode 3148635731, Iran 2Department of Human Vaccines and Sera, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Zipcode 31976197, Iran 3Department of Microbiology, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Zipcode 31976197, Iran
N Mohammadpour Dounighi Department of Human Vaccines and Sera, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Zipcode 31976197 Iran E‑mail: [email protected]
During last decades, diphtheria has remained as a serious disease that still outbreaks and can occur worldwide. Recently, new vaccine delivery systems have been developed by using the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as alginate. Alginate nanoparticles as a carrier with adjuvant and prolong release properties that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study diphtheria toxoid loaded nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique and characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, release profile, and immunogenicity. Appropriate parameters (calcium chloride and sodium alginate concentration, homogenization rate and homogenization time) redounded to the formation of suitable nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 70±0.5 nm. The loading studies of the nanoparticles resulted in high loading capacities (>90%) and subsequent release studies showed prolong profile. The stability and antigenicity of toxoid were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ouchterlony test and proved that the encapsulation process did not affect the antigenic integrity and activity. Guinea pigs immunized with the diphtheria toxoid-loaded alginate nanoparticles showed highest humoral immune response than conventional vaccine. It is concluded that, with regard to the desirable properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising vaccine delivery and adjuvant system.