Appropriate antibiotic administration in critically ill patients with pneumonia
1Hospital SgBuloh, Jalan Hospital, 47000 SgBuloh, Selangor, Malaysia 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
F Islahudin Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia E-mail: [email protected]
Inappropriate initial antibiotics for pneumonia infection are usually linked to extended intensive care unit stay and are associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study evaluates the impact of inappropriate initial antibiotics on the length of intensive care unit stay, risk of mortality and the co-predictors that influences these outcomes. This retrospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. The types of pneumonia investigated were hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Three different time points were defined as the initiation of appropriate antibiotics at 24 h, between 24 to 48 h and at more than 48 h after obtaining a culture. Patients had either hospital-acquired pneumonia (59.1%) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (40.9%). The length of intensive care unit stay ranged from 1 to 52 days (mean; 9.78±10.02 days). Patients who received appropriate antibiotic agent at 24 h had a significantly shorter length of intensive care unit stay (5.62 d, P<0.001). The co-predictors that contributed to an extended intensive care unit stay were the time of availability of susceptibility results and concomitant diseases, namely cancer and sepsis. The only predictor of intensive care unit death was cancer. The results support the need for early appropriate initial antibiotic therapy in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia infections.