Mechanism(s) involved in carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-mediated cardioprotection during ischaemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart
The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism(s) involved in carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-induced cardioprotection. We used the transition metal carbonyl compound carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 that can act as carbon monoxide donor in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury model using isolated rat heart preparation. Langendorff's perfused rat hearts when treated with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (50 μM) for 10 min before global ischaemia exhibited significant reduction in postischaemic levels of myocardial injury markers, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent. Similarly, pretreatment with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 showed significantly improved postischaemic recovery of heart rate, coronary flow rate, cardiodynamic parameters and reduced infarct size as compared to vehicle control hearts. Perfusion with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of α and β isoform, before and concomitantly with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 treatment abolished carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-induced cardioprotection. However, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase alpha inhibitor, SCIO-469, was unable to inhibit the cardioprotective effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2. Furthermore, protective effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 was significantly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor, chelerythrine, when added before and concomitantly with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2. It was also observed that, perfusion with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, before and concomitantly with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 was not able to inhibit carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-induced cardioprotection. Interestingly, we observed that wortmannin perfusion before ischaemia and continued till reperfusion significantly inhibited carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-mediated cardioprotection. Our findings suggest that the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 treatment may activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase β and protein kinase C pathways before ischaemia and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway during reperfusion which may be responsible for the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-mediated cardioprotective effect.