Molecular Cytotoxic Mechanisms of 1-(3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate in Human Leukemia Cell Lines
1Department of Clinical Analysis, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trinity, CEP: 88040-900,Brazil 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trinity, CEP: 88040-900, Brazil
M C Santos-Silva Department of Clinical Analysis, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trinity, CEP: 88040-900, Brazil E-mail: [email protected]
Recent studies have shown that gallic acid and its alkylesters induce apoptosis in different cell lines. Since new compounds with biological activity and less cytotoxicity to normal cells are necessary for cancer therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate on human acute myeloid leukemia K562 cells and on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. The cell viability was determined by MTT method. The apoptosis induction was assessed by bromide and acridine orange staining and by Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection kit. The cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. Cytometric analysis was also performed to evaluate the expression of the following proteins: AIF, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax. The mitochondrial potential was also assessed by flow cytometry using MitoView633 kit. The results showed that the compound significantly reduced the cell viability of K562 and Jurkat cells in a concentration and time dependent manner (IC50of 30 μM). The compound induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1phase and significantly increased the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1phase. Apoptosis was confirmed by the sight of morphological characteristics of apoptosis and by phosphatidylserine externalization (73.47±5.71% of cells expressing annexin). The results also showed that the compound promotes a modification in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and increases p53 expression. Thus, it is possible to conclude that 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-dodecylbenzoate induces apoptosis by inhibiting the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and by increasing the release of AIF, Bax and p53. In addition, it blocks the cell cycle at G0/G1, stopping cell proliferation. So far, the results suggest that this compound may have a potential therapeutic effect against leukemia cells.