Solid-state characterization of nevirapine
Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Sector 67, India
R Panchagnula Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Sector 67, India India E-mail: [email protected]
The purpose of this investigation is to characterize nevirapine from commercial samples and samples crystallized from different solvents under various conditions. The solid-state behavior of nevirapine samples was investigated using a variety of complementary techniques such as microscopy (optical, polarized, hot stage microscopy), differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The commercial samples of nevirapine had the same polymorphic crystalline form with an anhedral crystal habit. Intrinsic dissolution of nevirapine was similar for both the commercial batches. Powder dissolution showed pH dependency, with maximum dissolution in acidic pH and there was no significant effect of particle size. The samples recrystallized from different solvent systems with varying polarity yielded different crystal habits. Stirring and degrees of supersaturation influenced the size and shape of the crystals. The recrystallized samples did not produce any new polymorphic form, but weak solvates with varying crystal habit were produced. Recrystallized samples showed differences in the x-ray diffractograms. However, all the samples had the same internal crystal lattice as revealed from their similar melting points and heat of fusion. The intrinsic dissolution rate of recrystallized samples was lower than the commercial sample. It was found that the compression pressure resulted in desolvation and partial conversion of the crystal form. After compression, the recrystallized samples showed similar x-ray diffractograms to the commercial sample. Amorphous form showed slightly higher aqueous solubility than the commercial crystalline form.