Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 70  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 362-363
Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Kaempferia rotunda linn

Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim-737 132, India

Date of Submission04-Nov-2006
Date of Decision14-Nov-2007
Date of Acceptance12-Jun-2008

Correspondence Address:
J Priya Mohanty
Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim-737 132
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.43002

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The plant Kaempferia rotunda Linn. has been explored for its anti oxidant potential in the present study. The antioxidant property was assessed by lipid peroxidation markers such as malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (4-HNE). The lipid peroxidation byproducts are highly toxic and responsible for various diseases like myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hepatic injury, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The chemical constituents of the plant were critically and qualitatively analyzed to confirm the presence of flavonoids and phenolic derivatives. Hence our objective has been designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Kaempferia rotunda linn. and its contribution to control the lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, malonaldehyde, 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal, Kaempferia rotunda Linn

How to cite this article:
Mohanty J P, Nath L K, Bhuyan N, Mariappan G. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Kaempferia rotunda linn. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70:362-3

How to cite this URL:
Mohanty J P, Nath L K, Bhuyan N, Mariappan G. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Kaempferia rotunda linn. Indian J Pharm Sci [serial online] 2008 [cited 2016 May 4];70:362-3. Available from:

The free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals (OH - ), superoxide radicals (O 2 - ), singlet oxygen (O - ) and hydrogen peroxide radicals (H 2 O 2 ) play a significant role in age dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer [1],[2] . The free radicals deliberately activate the lipid peroxidation [3] . Hence various toxic metabolites are generated i.e. MDA and 4-HNE. The malonaldehyde can attack NH2 group of protein molecules to form both intramolecular and intermolecular cross links between different proteins causing severe damage to membrane proteins. These metabolites have been associated with damaging effects of oxidative stress, oxygen toxicity and liver injury [4] .

The plant Kaempferia rotunda linn. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae also named bhuichampaka (Sanskrit), bhuchampa (Hindi) and blackhorm (English). It is a fragrant aromatic herb with a tuberous rhizome distributed throughout India [5] . In some districts of Maharashtra the powder root is popular in mumps and also said to be used in the form of poultice, promotes suppuration. The main constitutent crotepoxide is useful for the inhibition of tumors [6] .

Phytochemically the plant has been attributed to contain flavonoids, crotepoxide, chalcones, quercetin, flavonols, β-sitosterol, stigmosterol, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and some hydrocarbons have been previously reported[7] . The recent literature review revealed that abundant presence of flavonoids in the plant of interest plays prime role in antioxidant mechanisms [8],[9],[10] .

The tuberous rhizomes of Kaempferia rotunda Linn were collected during July-August from the various areas of Sikkim Himalayan region and authenticated by Botanical Survey of India, Gangtok, Sikkim. The dried, powdered rhizomes were subjected to Soxhlet extraction successively using methanol. The extract was filtered, concentrated in vacuum under reduced pressure. The yield value was found to be 8.5%. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical investigation for phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids and crotepoxide.

The liver was chosen to estimate the markers of lipid peroxidation because the metabolism of toxic metabolites and free radicals occur mainly in liver. The metabolites from liver may diffuse into various extra hepatic tissues causing lipid peroxidation and cellular damage [11] .

The fresh goat liver was obtained from local market, stored in phosphate buffer, homogenized (1g/ml) and filtered to get clear homogenate. The lipid peroxidation indicator i.e. MDA was estimated using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) by the method of Ohkawa et al [12] . The lipid peroxidation was induced in goat liver homogenate by ferrous sulphate. The generated MDA reacts with thiobarbituric acid at pH 3.5, produces a pink coloured complex, which has 'λmax at 530 nm. The concentration of MDA was calculated by calibration of standard graph through regression method. The significance of the results was analyzed by statistical method.

The liver supernatant was mixed with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and incubated for 1 h at room temp. The formed adduct of 4-HNE and DNPH was measured at 350 nm in UV/Vis spectrophotometer [13] . The quantity of 4-HNE was calculated by linear regression analysis. The data were expressed as meanSE differences between groups were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni multiple range test. The results are statically significant at p <0.05 levels.

The experimental study was based on the estimation of MDA and 4-HNE and their suppression by Kaempferia rotunda Linn. and presented in [Table 1]. From the experimental results, it proved that the methanol extract of the plant has significant antioxidant property. The quantification of MDA and 4-HNE can be directly correlated with the lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity of the extract. The antioxidant property was studied for dose dependency. From the [Figure 1] it was concluded that the antioxidant property has inverse relationship with dose i.e. high at low dose and vice versa. The extract 100 g/ml and 200 g/ml have significant and moderate antioxidant property; respectively but 500 and 1000 g/ml has insignificant property. The antioxidant property has inverse relationship; it may be due to the presence of crotepoxide, which increases the peroxidation. At low dose the level of crotepoxide is low hence peroxidation is less and the flavanoids can scavange all the radicals. As a result the antioxidant property is more but in higher dose the total phenomena is reversed. The antioxidant property of extract was compared with standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid). The scavenging of the radicals by the methanol extract of Kaempferia rotunda in the above study has thus been correlated with the antioxidant potential of the plant and this information can be used to control the age dependent diseases mentioned above.

   References Top

1.Visioli F, Borsani L, Galli C. Diet and prevention of coronary heart disease: The potential role of Phytochemicals. Cardiovasc Res 2000;47:419-25.   Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
2.Breimer LH. Molecular mechanism of oxygen radical carcinogenesis and mutagenesis: The role of DNA base damage. Mol Carcinog 1990;3:188-97.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Iron and free radical reactions: Two aspects of antioxidant protection. Trends Biochem Sci 1986;11:372-8.   Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Adkinson D, Hollwarth ME, Benoit JN, Parks DA, Granger DN. Role of free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. Acta Physiol 1986;126:101-7.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Gurung B. The Medicinal plants of Sikkim Himalaya. 1st ed. Gangtok: Jasmine Bejoy Gurung Publisher; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Kupchan SM, Hemingway RJ, Smith RM. Crotepoxide, a novel cyclohexane diepoxide tumor inhibitor from Croton macrostachys. J Org Chem 1969;34:3898-902.   Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  
7.Pai BR, Rao NN, Wariyar NS. Occurrence of crotepoxide in Kaempferia rotunda linn. Indian J Chem 1970;8:468.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Sirat HN, Jamil S, Siew LW. Constituents of Kaempferia rotunda linn. Chem Res Commun 2001;13:48-54.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1035-42.   Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
10.Middleton E. The flavonoids. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1984;5:335-8.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Ames BN. Endogeneous oxidative DNA damage, aging and cancer. Free Radic Res Commun 1989;7:121-8.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  
12.Okhawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay of lipid peroxide in animal tissue by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Kinter M. Free radicals: A practical approach. In: Punchard, NA, Kelly GJ, editors. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 136.  Back to cited text no. 13    


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

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