Characterization and Determination of Major Bioactive Acids in Camel Urine Using Gas Chromatography Mass-spectrometry
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia [email protected]
The major acidic and phenolic biogenic materials in adult-camel urine were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The adult-camel urine sample was treated with glucuronidase/arylsulfatase enzyme followed by extraction on Sep-Pak® C8 column. The water soluble compounds, including urea and creatinine, were washed out using water containing 0.4% trifluoroacetic acid. Ethyl acetate:diethylether, 1:1 v/v, was used as extraction solvent. The extraction residue was reprivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The average concentrations of, phenol, p-cresol, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, azelaic acid and benzoic acid were 4.0, 107.2, 42.7, 3.2, 68.6 and 490.6 mg/100 ml, respectively. The calibration range of each of these compounds was spanning the range of 1.0 to 50 ng/μl. The extraction recovery of all studied compounds was 100±0.8%. A standard solution mixture containing the major acidic and phenolic compounds was prepared to contain the same corresponding concentration in adult-camel urine. Both, adult-camel urine and prepared standard mixture were active against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus (fungus) and Candida albicans (fungus) after 72 h of incubation.