Formulation and characterization of pyrazinamide polymeric nanoparticles for pulmonary tuberculosis: Efficiency for alveolar macrophage targeting
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, India
J N Ravi Varma Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003 India E-mail: [email protected]
Pyrazinamide, a highly specific agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is used as first-line drug to treat tuberculosis. The current work aims to formulate polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery system to sustain the release profile and reduce the dosing frequency of pyrazinamide. Further aim was to target the macrophages within body fluid. These polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by simultaneous double-emulsion (W/O/W) solvent evaporation/diffusion technique. The prepared dispersions were characterized for various biopharmaceutical parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug loading capacity, entrapment efficiency and targeting to alveolar macrophages. The formulated polymeric nanoparticles were in the particle size range of 45.51 to 300.4 nm with a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 80.9%. The stability study of optimized batch conducted at 40±2°/75±5% relative humidity showed no significant changes up to 90 days. X-Ray Diffraction spectrum exhibits the transformation of crystalline form of drug to amorphous in the formulation. Scanning Electron Microscope image showed nanoparticles spherical in shape with smooth surface. In vitro release profiles were biphasic in nature with burst release followed by controlled release over a period of 24 h obeying diffusion mechanism. In vivo and ex vivo studies results of the study show significant uptake of the nanoparticles by alveolar macrophages through fluorescent micrograph. Polymeric nanoparticles formulation of pyrazinamide could encompass significant uptake by alveolar macrophages, the high first-pass metabolism, sustain the release of drug leading to reduction in dose, toxicity and improvement of patient compliance.