Treatment of Gastric Ulcers with Fenugreek Seed Extract; In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Approaches
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Mumbai-400 098, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goa College of Pharmacy, 18th June Road, Panaji, Goa-403 001, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and B. Y. L Nair Charitable Hospital, Dr. A. L. Nair Road, Mumbai-400 008, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Bombay Veterinary College, BVC Campus Road, Parel, Mumbai-400 012, India
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Mumbai-400 098, India, E-mail: [email protected]
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcer or gastroprotective potential of fenugreek seed aqueous extract using in vitro and in vivo models and to elucidate the possible mechanism of fenugreek seeds by in silico analysis on H+/K+ ATPase receptor, a crucial target for mediating the gastroprotective effect. Human gastric carcinoma epithelial cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the gastro protective effect of fenugreek aqueous extract over a concentration range of 0.1-10 µg/ml by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay against ethanol (15%). In vivo gastroprotective effect of the extract was assessed in adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex at three doses viz., 200, 600 and 1000 mg/kg against ethanol (90%). Pantoprazole sodium (50 mg/kg) and misoprostol sodium (20 µg/kg) were used as positive control. The flavonoids and saponins reported in the extract were assessed for possible interactions at H+/K+ ATPase receptor site by in silico analysis. In the human gastric carcinoma epithelial cells, Fenugreek protected against the damage induced by ethanol at 5 µg/ml; whereas a protection of 67% at the dose of 1000 mg/kg was observed in the animal studies. The flavonoid derivatives namely vitexin-7-O-glucoside, vicenin-2, orientin and luteolin showed good interactions on H+/K+ ATPase while the saponins lacked good interaction in in silico analysis. Fenugreek seed extract showed gastroprotection in both: in vitro and in vivo studies. The possible mechanism of action for the extract was elucidated by in silico studies.