Acute and Subacute Studies of Thevetia peruviana Seed Methanol Extracts on Wistar Male Albino Rats
Department of Botany, Kodungallur Kunhikuttan Thampuran Memorial Government College, Pullut, Thrissur, Kerala 680663, 1Department of Biochemistry, Amala Cancer Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala 680555, 2Department of Botany, St. Teresa’s College, Ernakulam, Kerala 682011, India
Nesy Ea, Department of Botany, Kodungallur Kunhikuttan Thampuran Memorial Government College, Pullut, Thrissur, Kerala 680663, India, E-mail: email@example.com
Thevetia peruviana seed kernels are widely used for suicide attempts in many countries including India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of toxicity exposure of seed kernels by acute and subacute studies on male Wistar albino rats. Haematological parameters and serum biochemical studies were performed in all treated and control groups. In acute toxicity studies, no mortality was observed in groups treated with 100 and 250 mg/kg animals, but the mortality rate was 100 % in 500 mg/kg category. Lethality (lethal dose 50 %) associated with 70 % methanol extract was calculated as 375 mg/kg, revealed the narrow margin of safety lies in between 250 and 500 mg/kg. Exposure to subacute doses did not make any significant changes (p>0.05) in physical parameters like body weight and feeding habits of all treated groups (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg for consecutive 14 d). All groups recorded a progressive weight gain and normal food consumption and water intake (p>0.05) as compared with control. Total erythrocytes, haemoglobin concentration, lipid profile, serum electrolytes, bicarbonates, liver functioning enzymes, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, renal urea and creatinine levels were recorded normal in acute and subacute groups. From this experiment it is concluded that the level of toxicity and safety margin is very narrow and the seeds really take lives of organisms, whether the intake is accidental or deliberate.