Ameliorative Effects of Raphanus sativus L., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. and Ficus palmata Forssk. on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization Events of Stone Formation In Vitro
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201310, 1Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Technology, Bhimtal Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263136, India
Archana Negi Sah, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Technology, Bhimtal Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263136, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Study demonstrates the antiurolithiatic potential of the three important plant species of the western Himalayan region viz. Ficus palmata fruits, Raphanus sativus leaves and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves in vitro. Nucleation, growth and aggregation assays along with microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals was employed to investigate the antilithic effect of the hydroethanolic extracts of Ficus palmata fruits, Raphanus sativus leaves and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves on crystallization events of calcium oxalate stone formation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography analysis was employed for characterizing the phytoconstituents present in the extracts. All the three plant extracts produced inhibition of nucleation, growth and aggregation, and reduction of number and size of calcium oxalate crystals. A favorable morphological transformation of calcium oxalate crystals was also witnessed in the presence of the hydroethanolic extracts of Raphanus sativus and Nyctanthes arbortristis. Phytochemical investigation of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds while Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography analysis further substantiated the presence of polyphenolic compounds which are known to be involved in producing the anticrystallization effect of the tested extracts. Study confirmed that Ficus palmata fruits, Raphanus sativus leaves and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves possess significant anticrystallization activity against calcium oxalate crystals which may translate to brilliant antiurolithiatic activity based on the effect of these extracts on various phases of urinary stone formation as witnessed in the present study.