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Bioavailability Enhancement of Partially Water Soluble Solid Medicament in Traditional System of Medicine

Author(s): K. D. Yadav*, A. K. Chaudhary and A. K. Verma
Shri Krishna Ayurvedic Medical College, Rauna Khurda, Cholapur, Varanasi-221 101, Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India

Correspondence Address:
1Shri Krishna Ayurvedic Medical College, Rauna Khurda, Cholapur, Varanasi-221 101, India, E-mail:

Liquid state medicaments like Kwatha (decoction), sneha kalpa (oleaginous preparation), asavarista (biomedical fermentation) are supposed to have higher bioavailability due to higher absorption whereas solid state medicaments such as herbal churna (powder), bhasma and herbomineral formulations has theoretical low bioavailability, this may be due to poor water solubility. It has been claimed that bhasma is very effective at low dose. Thus the question arises ‘how Bhasma and others will be effective in very low dose despite lower water solubility?’ To find the answer of this question, we scrutinize ancient and contemporary literature regarding pharmaceutical aspects. It was found that particle reduction technology improving solubility, enhancing bioavailability and numerous particle size reduction technologies such as bhavan, bhasmikaran etc. were in practice of Ayurveda, which might correspond to liquid assisted grinding and tribochemistry. Particle size below 1 mm causes disruption of solute-solute interaction and increases bioavailability. Tribochemistry may produce nanoparticle by two sets of reactions, mechanically and thermally induced chemistry at the asperity tips due to flash temperatures and one affects the other. The reaction of solid state components by liquid assisted grinding also is an important method responsible for the conversion of inert precursors, such as metal oxides, into hybrid inorganic-organic materials. Thus particle reduction technology enhances the bioavailability of poor water soluble medicament, apart from that use, liquid media in process supposed to helps in particle reduction technology and potentiation. Thus, with the help of suitable particle size reduction technology and synergetic action of liquid medicament, bioavailability of poor water soluble medicaments can be enhanced.

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