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Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Annona squamosa Leaf Extract with Synergistic Antibacterial Activity

Author(s): R. Lakshmi Kalyani, V. S. Chandra1, P. P. N. Vijaykumar2, S. V. N. Pammi3, M. Rajkumar, P. V. Swamy* and K. V. R. Murthy4*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri Vishnu College of Pharmacy, Vishnupur, Bhimavaram-534 202, 1Department of Humanities and Basic Sciences (Physics), Godavari Institute of Engineering and Technology (Autonomous), Rajahmundry-533 296, 2Advanced Analytical Laboratory, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 34134, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 4A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, India

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A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, India, E-mail:

In the era of increased prevalence of bacterial resistance and outbreak of resistant infectious diseases, it is essential to develop effective therapeutic strategies towards multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this scenario, silver nanoparticles were tailored using Annona squamosa leaf extract and evaluated using various characterization techniques such as high-performance thin-layer chromatography, UV/Vis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs were assessed for antibacterial activity towards various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the pharmacodynamic interaction of green synthesized AgNPs was assessed with gentamicin towards various bacteria as a novel adjuvant protocol, which revealed the remarkable antibacterial effect in comparison with AgNPs, or gentamicin alone. The superior biological activity was attributed to metabolites in plant extract, synthetic strategy of ultra-small AgNPs and synergistic effect of nano antibiotics.

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