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Abstract

Characterization and Determination of Major Bioactive Acids in Camel Urine Using Gas Chromatography Mass-spectrometry

Author(s): A. Khedr* and F. Khorshid
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia [email protected]


The major acidic and phenolic biogenic materials in adult-camel urine were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The adult-camel urine sample was treated with glucuronidase/arylsulfatase enzyme followed by extraction on Sep-Pak® C8 column. The water soluble compounds, including urea and creatinine, were washed out using water containing 0.4% trifluoroacetic acid. Ethyl acetate:diethylether, 1:1 v/v, was used as extraction solvent. The extraction residue was reprivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The average concentrations of, phenol, p-cresol, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid, azelaic acid and benzoic acid were 4.0, 107.2, 42.7, 3.2, 68.6 and 490.6 mg/100 ml, respectively. The calibration range of each of these compounds was spanning the range of 1.0 to 50 ng/μl. The extraction recovery of all studied compounds was 100±0.8%. A standard solution mixture containing the major acidic and phenolic compounds was prepared to contain the same corresponding concentration in adult-camel urine. Both, adult-camel urine and prepared standard mixture were active against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus (fungus) and Candida albicans (fungus) after 72 h of incubation.

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