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Abstract

Co-crystals: A novel approach to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients

Author(s): AV Yadav1, AS Shete2, AP Dabke3, PV Kulkarni4, SS Sakhare5
1 Krishna Institute of Medical Scinces University and Institute of Pharmacy, Karad-415 110, India 2 Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy, Ghogoan, Karad-415 111, India 3 Goverenment College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad-415 124, India 4 Government College of Pharmacy, Osmanpura, Aurangabad-431 005, India 5 Gourishankar Education Society's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Limb, Satara-415 004, India

Correspondence Address:
A V Yadav Krishna Institute of Medical Scinces University and Institute of Pharmacy, Karad-415 110 India [email protected]


Crystal form can be crucial to the performance of a dosage form. This is especially true for compounds that have intrinsic barriers to drug delivery, such as low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution in gastrointestinal media, low permeability and first-pass metabolism. The nature of the physical form and formulation tends to exhibit the greatest effect on bioavailability parameters of water insoluble compounds that need to be given orally in high doses. An alternative approach available for the enhancement of drug solubility, dissolution and bioavailability is through the application of crystal engineering of co-crystals. The physicochemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the bulk material properties can be modified, whilst maintaining the intrinsic activity of the drug molecule. This article covers the advantages of co-crystals over salts, solvates (hydrates), solid dispersions and polymorphs, mechanism of formation of co-crystals, methods of preparation of co-crystals and application of co-crystals to modify physicochemical characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients along with the case studies. The intellectual property implications of creating co-crystals are also highly relevant.

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