Effect of Different Solvents on Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants by Reflux Method from Wild Pomegranate Flavedo, their Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties
Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173230, 1Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411, 2Department of Basic Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173230, India
H. Hamid, Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173230, India, E-mail: email@example.com
In this study wild pomegranate flavedo powder was used for the extraction of phenolics through various solvents by reflux method. A significant difference in all parameters was observed among the different extracts with varying solvents and extraction time after oven drying. The highest total phenolics, total flavonoids, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and metal chelating activity among different extracts of wild pomegranate flavedo were recorded when combination of ethanol and distilled water in the ratio of 50:50 was used (1 h extraction time) after oven drying. Cluster analysis based on Ward’s method showed that all treatments were divided in nine major groups and three major clusters after the application of cluster analysis. The two best selected extracts were further compared after drying in lyophilizer and tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli for antibacterial activity. In conclusion, ethanol and distilled water lyophilized extract contained higher bioactive compounds than oven dried extract, which have higher antioxidant and antibacterial effects and could be useful in the extraction of natural antioxidants. The study concluded that fruit flavedo is rich source of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity which have beneficial natural antioxidants for health and have many health promoting properties which makes the flavedo suitable for future processing into various functional/nutraceutical foods.