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Effects of Water Miscible Organic Co-solvents on Enzyme Kinetic Parameters of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Rat Liver Microsomes

Author(s): S. H. Kamble, Deepali Desle and K. R. Iyer*
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E) Mumbai 400 098, India

Correspondence Address:
K. R. Iyer, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E) Mumbai 400 098, India, E-mail:

We have investigated the effects of methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulphoxide or dioxane on enzyme kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) of p-nitrophenol hydroxylation, phenacetin deethylation and metoprolol metabolism in rat liver microsomes, at different solvent concentrations. In the case of p-nitrophenol hydroxylation, methanol (0.1 %-0.75 % v/v) and dimethyl sulphoxide (0.01 %-0.075 % v/v) showed 1.3 and 2.5-fold increase respectively, in the Km with a less marked effect on the Vmax. In contrast, dimethyl sulphoxide (0.1 %-0.75% v/v) showed a 1.96-fold decrease in the Vmax. Unlike, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide, acetonitrile showed activation of the p-nitrophenol hydroxylation activity as indicated by a 0.7-fold decrease in the Km. In the case of metoprolol metabolism, dioxane resulted in a 1.5 to 3.1-fold increase in the Km of all the three metabolite formation pathways in concentration dependent manner, with less marked effect on Vmax of the reaction. Interestingly, while acetonitrile did not affect the Km for metabolite 1 and 2 formation, the Km of metabolite 3 formation was decreased in a concentration dependent manner again with little effect on all the three Vmax values. Further, methanol had little to no effect on the Vmax of metabolite 1 and 2 formation while metabolite 3 formation was increased by 2-fold. The Km of all three metabolite formations was found to be decreased in presence of methanol. The phenacetin deethylation activity in rat liver microsomes followed atypical kinetics. Methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide did not affect the auto activation kinetics at concentration range studied. Dimethyl sulphoxide and dioxane appeared to be unsuitable for characterizing the Cytochrome450 mediated reactions because they showed a very significant effect on the Vmax/Km ratio, starting at concentrations of 0.025 % v/v and 0.25 % v/v, respectively. Methanol and acetonitrile at concentration <0.5 % v/v appeared to be acceptable solvents for solubilization of substrates metabolized by Cytochrome450s.

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