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In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of the Extracts of Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) Grown in Jordan

Author(s): Nour Aboalhaija, Fatma Afifi, Maysa Al-Hussaini, M. Al-Najjar, Rana Abu-Dahab, Eliza Hasen, Maha Rashed, Sara Abdel Haq and E. Khalil*
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied Science Private University, Amman, 3King Hussein Cancer Centre, Amman, 4Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, 5Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Correspondence Address:
E. KHALIL, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, E-mail:

The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing potential of Schinus molle L. aqueous and ethanol extracts. First, the antimicrobial activity of Schinus molle extracts was tested against six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Citrobacter freundii). The growth of Citrobacter freundii and Enterococcus faecalis was totally inhibited by the aqueous extract at the lowest tested concentration (1.56 mg/mL). Next, in vitro wound healing assays were performed using human fibroblast cells’ proliferation and scratch tests. Based on the obtained promising results, the aqueous extracts were further tested in an in vivo excision wound model in rats. Animals were treated with a hydrogel formula enriched with the plant aqueous extract in two different concentrations (2 % and 5 %). Re-epithelialization, fibrosis and neovascularization of the epidermis and sub-epidermal cells in the regenerated tissue was observed, accompanied by an increase in the tensile strength of the skin of the rats treated with the plant aqueous extract when compared to the negative control group. Our results strongly support the use of Schinus molle aqueous extracts in topical formulations to promote wound healing.

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