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In Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Cancer Activities of the Cocos nucifera Flower Extract and the Phytochemical Identification by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis

Author(s): V. M. Berlin Grace* and Monisha M
Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641114, India

Correspondence Address:
V. M. Berlin Grace, Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641114, India, E-mail:

The flowers of Cocos nucifera (L.) have a traditional use as a healer of inflammatory disorders and are available as Ayurveda formulations. But the scientific knowledge on the bioactive phytochemicals and their medicinal effects are lacking. Hence, as a preliminary study, we have extracted the phytochemicals from the flowers of Cocos nucifera(L.) using ethanol and subjected to biochemical tests as well as gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis for phytochemical screening. The anti-cancer effect on human lung cancer cell line was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay for 25-200 μg/ml of the extract and the anti-inflammatory activity for different concentrations (1000- 8000 μg/ml) of the extract was evaluated using in vitro egg albumin degradation assay. The biochemical tests have indicated the presence of phytosterols and tannins. A total of 152 phytochemicals were reported in the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, which includes several phytosterols and few fatty acids, polyphenols and terpenes. A dose dependent growth inhibitory action (96.15 % by 200 μg/ml) was exerted on human lung cancer cell line cells by the extract (half-maximal inhibitory concentration value-90.2 μg/ ml). An effective inhibition on protein degradation (>50 %) as an indication of anti-inflammatory activity was exerted by the extract from 1000 μg/ml and the 4000 μg/ml treatment has shown a similar action as the 500 μg/ml of standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenacsodium has shown. The secondary metabolites such as quercetinderivative, eugenol, catechol, stigmasterol, campesterol, t-butylhydroquinone identified might have exerted these medicinal effects. This study results thus gives a clear medicinal impact of the ethanol extract of Cocos nucifera(L.) flower by showing a greater anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for further exploration of its pharmacological importance in the future.

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