Pinus Roxburghii Sarg. Ameliorates Alzheimer's disease- Type Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficits Caused by Intracerebroventricular-Streptozotocin in Rats: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P.-173229, 1Divison of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP-243122, India
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P.-173229, India, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is traditionally used as a nerve tonic, hemostatic and anticonvulsant. The present study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective activity of Pinus roxburghiiSarg. stem bark for memory and cognition using in vitro and in vivo methods. Plant drug was extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extraction. In vitro cell viability activity of Pinus roxburghiiSarg. was assessed using PC-12 cell lines. The in vivo neuroprotective activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. was tested on Wistar albino rats (either sex) and intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (3 mg/kg, bilateral) was given to cause memory deficits. High-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting was performed for the presence of quercetin and gallic acid in the plant extract. The phytochemical testing of extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and tannins. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. showed significant cell viability at 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml in an in vitro test on PC-12 cell lines. In the in vivo activity, intracerebroventricular streptozotocin caused significant deterioration in memory and cognition, tissue oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity. Pinus roxburghiiSarg. 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, per os and donepezil (3 mg/kg, per os) significantly (p<0.05) reversed the behavioral changes in rats when tested on morris water maze and elevated plus maze. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation, acetylcholinesterase activity and decreased the level of glutathione were significantly (p<0.05) antagonized by Pinus roxburghii Sarg., similar to donepezil in rat brain. Quercetin and gallic acid were identified quantitatively in the plant extract in High-performance thin layer chromatography study. The methanolic extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. ameliorated intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced cognitive deficits and memory impairment possibly due to the presence of quercetin and gallic acid.