Investigating Immunological Parameters and Quantification of Rhoptry Pseudokinases Gene Expression in Toxoplasmosis
Microbiology Unit, Basic Science Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
N. I. M YOUSIF, Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq, E-mail: Niyan.email@example.com
Toxoplasma affects about one-third of the world’s population and is a common disease between humans and animals. The most common cause of toxoplasmosis is infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The main virulence factors of Toxoplasma gondii in toxoplasmosis are rhoptry pseudokinases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and immunological parameters of toxoplasmosis and investigate the expression of rhoptry protein 5, rhoptry protein 16 and rhoptry protein 18 genes in women in Erbil. Also, evaluation of the serum levels of interleukin-12 and interleukin-6 in women with recurrent miscarriage were performed. In this study, 300 women at their reproductive age who referred to Maternity Teaching Hospital of Erbil were registered. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique has been applied to detect anti toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. Statistical analysis was done via statistical package for the social sciences version 21.0 and the p value of ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. A total of 50 seropositive samples with and without history of miscarriage were tested by polymerase chain reaction for detection of rhoptry protein 5, rhoptry protein 16 and rhoptry protein 18 genes using home designed primers. A significant association was found between toxoplasmosis and history of abortion, but no association was found between toxoplasmosis and education level, socioeconomic status, age and residence. According to the results, the interleukin-6 level was non-significantly (p>0.05) changed in infected women. Nevertheless, serum interleukin-12 level was remarkably (p<0.05) elevated in infected women compared to control group. Polymerase chain reaction targeting both toxoplasma genes detected more abortive cases than non-abortive one among anti-toxoplasma seropositive women. The results of quantification and detection of rhoptry protein 5, rhoptry protein 16 and rhoptry protein 18 genes of Toxoplasma gondii among 50 samples by polymerase chain reaction, confirmed the expression of these genes in toxoplasmosis condition. Finally, it was concluded that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis has increased in Erbil women and the level of interleukin-12 in the serum of women infected with Toxoplasma gondii has increased significantly. Also, rhoptry protein 5, rhoptry protein 16 and rhoptry protein 18 genes can be used as markers in the first level of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, quantification of these genes can help in determining Toxoplasma gondii strain virulence.