All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.


Molecular Level Study and Characterization of Plasmid Deoxyribonucleic Acid Profile of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Author(s): Kamal Ismail Bakr Al Otraqchi*
Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Kamal Ismail Bakr Al Otraqchi, Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, E-mail:

The main objective is to study the genotypic and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid content of resistant isolates in Erbil city. A total of 39 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from 102 diabetic foot ulcer patients, whose ages ranged from 37 to 88 y, attending various medical wards of hospitals in Erbil city, Iraq, between May 2020 and March 2021. Isolates were tested for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo beta-lactamases. The presence and prevalence of multidrug-resistant isolates namely blaOXA-51- like, blaOXA-23-like, ISAba1 and outer membrane protein A expression of oxacillinase carbapenemases gene and biofilm formation respectively were screened on the molecular level. Finally, plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid profile was determined and the biofilm-forming capacity was measured. Most isolates showed high resistance to different antimicrobial agents tested, the most effective agents were colistin and polymyxin B. 12 (30.76 %) isolates were tested positive for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, while all 39 (100 %) were metallo beta-lactamase producers. 27 (69.23 %) of isolates were biofilm producers, while 12 (30.76 %) were nonbiofilm producers. The blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, ISAba1 and outer membrane protein A genes were detected in all 39 (100 %) isolates. The genes encoding resistance to certain antibiotics, in addition to genes that coding for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and biofilm formation were located on plasmids. Analysis of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid content revealed that 25 (64.10 %) isolates harbored from one to several plasmid bands ranging from 1 kilo base pairs to more than 10 kilo base pairs. No thermo-sensitive plasmids were detected. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is evolving into a global health threat. Carbapenems are effective therapeutic agents for Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections. Before deciding the course of treatment, it is important to consider the aforementioned interaction since the presence of multiple species may worsen the infection.

Full-Text | PDF

Google scholar citation report
Citations : 69022

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences received 69022 citations as per google scholar report