Nutritional, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Analysis of Bee Bread from Different Regions of Malaysia
Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, 2Unit of Intergrative Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Unit of Intergrative Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, E-mail: email@example.com
Bee bread samples of stingless bee (Heterotrigona itama) collected from Kelantan (east coast), Selangor (central) and Perak (northern) regions of Malaysia were subjected to nutritional analysis using standard hydrolysis and oxidation methods. Phytochemical screening was carried out on aqueous and ethanol extracts of bee bread. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents, free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity of the extracts were also assessed. All samples had essential and non-essential amino acids, carbohydrates, proteins, fat, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, xanthoproteins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, resins, and antioxidant activities. Sample from Kelantan had the significantly highest content of alanine, glycine and isoleucine, while sample from Selangor had the highest content of carbohydrate, total energy and proline. Sample from Perak had the highest content of fat. Bee bread ethanol extract demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant properties compared to bee bread aqueous extract with the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents in sample from Perak and the highest free radical scavenging activity in sample from Selangor. Bee bread from Malaysia has good nutritional and antioxidant properties, which might indicate its potential to be a dietary supplement. The differences in compositions and antioxidant activities among the samples might be related to the floral sources and geographical locations.