Relieving Effect of Naringenin on Constipation in Mice and Its Effect on Intestinal Flora in Mice
Department of Gastroenterology, Medical Center for Digestive Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 1Nanjing Hospital of Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210011, China
Zheng Liu, Department of Gastroenterology, Medical Center for Digestive Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province 210011, China, E-mail: email@example.com
To look into how naringenin affects mice's intestinal flora and alleviation from constipation. The four groups control, model, positive drug and naringenin, each with ten mice were formed from the forty mice at random. Lactulose aqueous solution (12 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to the positive drug group whereas naringenin aqueous solution (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to the naringenin group once day for 37 d. The model and control groups received 0.2 ml of sterile, double-distilled water as a control. The 31st d marked the beginning of the constipation model. A sterile, once-daily aqueous solution containing 10 mg of loperamide hydrochloride was administered to each of the other 3 groups, except the control group, in amounts of 0.2 ml. After modeling, 0.2 ml of active carbon suspension was gavaged to each mouse and the interval between the first black feces passing and that time was noted. The mice were administered loperamide hydrochloride or sterile double distilled water after a 12 h fast and after fasting for 1 h, they were given 0.2 ml activated carbon suspension. After 30 min, all mice were killed. On the 30th d and 36th d, the mice's fresh stools that were voided within 4 h were collected and, their moisture level and short-chain fatty acid content was assessed. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid and interleukin-1 beta high-throughput sequencing were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the relative contents of intestinal flora were measured using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid high-throughput sequencing. There were differences in the levels of various genera and the model group's Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Shannon index were smaller than those of the control group (p<0.05). Contrary to the model group, the positive drug and naringenin group had greater Shannon indices and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios (p<0.05). The sample points from the naringenin, positive drug and control groups had larger overlap ratios than those from the other groups. As opposed to the naringenin, positive drug and control groups, the sample points of the naringenin, positive drug and control groups could be differentiated. Naringenin could regulate intestinal flora, improve the efficiency of intestinal functioning and protect the intestinal mucus barrier in constipated mice.