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Screening of Secondary Metabolites and Semi-Synthetic Analogues of Ramalina leiodea (Nyl.) Nyl. against Free Radicals, Inflammation and Cancer Cell Lines

Author(s): K. N. Killari, D. S. N. B. K. Prasanth, P. K. Pasala, S. P. Panda, M. S. Samanth, Haritha Polimati and V. B. Tatipamula*
Department of Pharmacology, AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, 1Department of Pharmacognosy, KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh 520010, 2Department of Pharmacology, Santhiram College of Pharmacy, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh 518112, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 281406, India, 4Center for Molecular Biology, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Duy Tan University, Danang 550000, Vietnam

Correspondence Address:
V. B. Tatipamula, Center for Molecular Biology, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Duy Tan University, Danang 550000, Vietnam, E-mail:

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological actions of earlier reported metabolites (1-5), and semi-synthetic analogs (4a-e) from acetone extract of Ramalina leiodea. The Acetone extract of Ramalina leiodea were screened for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and acute toxicity studies. The antioxidant results exhibited that compound 4e showed effective inhibitory ability against ferric ions, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide free radicals with 50 % inhibition value of 28.50, 27.0, and 25.0 μg/ml, respectively. Also, among all the samples, 4e revealed good inhibition of albumin denaturation of 105 μg/ml (IC50 value). Additionally, the median lethal dosage of acetone extract of Ramalina leiodea was observed to be above 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Also, the in vivo antiinflammatory studies of acetone extract of Ramalina leiodea exhibited a noticeable reduction of edema in rat paw at both low and high dosage when compared to indomethacin. From the sulforhodamine B assay, it is concluded that 2 and 4b displayed a noteworthy degree of specificity against tested series of cell lines. On the other hand, all tested samples displayed a low degree of specificity against normal cells. To conclude, Ramalina leiodea could be the best source for bioactive agents for the management of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer.

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