Toxicity Effects of Oral Administration of Clinacanthus nutans Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Blood, Liver and Kidneys of Mice
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia, 1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto 840212, Sokoto State, Nigeria, 2Animal Science Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute Headquarter, Serdang 43400, Selangor, 3Department of Paraclinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kota Bharu 16100, Kelantan, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, 5Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
A. Aliyu, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto 840212, Sokoto State, Nigeria, E-mail: email@example.com
Clinacanthus nutans has been used traditionally in the treatment of herpes simplex viral infection. This research evaluated the toxicity effects of sub-chronic oral administration of Clinacanthus nutans ethanolic leaf extract in Institute of Cancer Research mice. A total 50, 8 w old female mice were divided into five groups of 10 mice each; Group A (control), Group B (125 mg/kg), Group C (250 mg/kg), Group D (500 mg/kg) and Group E (1000 mg/kg). The extract was administered orally for 90 d. The mice were monitored and sacrificed on d 91. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for analyses. There was significant (p<0.05) alterations in the haematological parameters of the mice in Group E and a significant increase in creatinine levels in groups B, C, D and E compared to A. The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups D and E, compared to A. Histopathological evaluation of liver and kidneys revealed a moderate cytoplasmic vacuolation, eosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknosis of hepatocytes, as well as mild to moderate activated Kupffer cells in Group E. Similarly, the renal tubular cells showed mild to moderate renal cytoplasmic vacuolation, eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic and karyolytic cells in Group E. It is concluded that repeated oral doses of Clinacanthus nutans ethanolic leaf extract for 90 d induced hepato-renal toxicities in female Institute of Cancer Research mice.