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Abstract

Cadmium Chloride and Silver Nitrate Affect the Gene Expression, Stevioside, and Rebaudioside: A Production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.)

Author(s): S. Tahmasi, G. A. Garoosi* and J. Ahmadi
Department of Biotechnology, 1Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34149 16818, Iran

Correspondence Address:
G. A. Garoosi, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture and natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34149 16818, Iran, E-mail: [email protected]


Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) produces steviol glycoside sweeteners that are sweeter than sucrose. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are important steviol glycosides used in food production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of cadmium chloride (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L) and silver nitrate (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg/L) and different sampling times on stevioside and rebaudioside A production and Ent-kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase, uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 74G1 and uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 76G1 genes expression in in vitro conditions. The results showed that the application of cadmium nitrate and silver nitrate decreased stevioside and rebaudioside A production. Among various concentrations of cadmium chloride, the highest concentrations of stevioside and rebaudioside A were respectively 39.76 mg/g and 2.27 mg/L dry weight 96 and 72 h after elicitation with 20 mg/L cadmium chloride. Among different concentrations of silver nitrate, the highest amounts of stevioside and rebaudioside A were respectively 33.33 mg/g dry weight was 2.19 mg/L obtained at control condition after 96 h and elicitation with 60 mg/L for 24 h. In elicitation with cadmium chloride the expression all three genes were increased but silver nitrate elicitation increased uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene expression and decreased the Ent-kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase and uridine diphosphateglycosyltransferase 74G1 genes expression. The correlation analysis showed that Ent-kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase gene expression was not correlated with uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 74G1 and uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 76G1 genes expression, while uridine diphosphateglycosyltransferase 74G1 was inversely correlated with uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 76G1. Also, positive correlations were observed between uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 74G1 gene expression with stevioside synthesis and uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene expression with rebaudioside A.

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