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Detection of blaCTX-M Genes among Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Clinical Specimens in Erbil

Author(s): Khanzad Khudhur Jarjees*, Rozhhalat Khudhur Jarjees and G. M. Qader
Department of Food Technology, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil 44002, 1Department of Anesthesia, Erbil Medical Technical Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil 44001, 2Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil 44002, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Khanzad Khudhur Jarjees, Department of Food Technology, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil 44002, Iraq, E-mail:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens that cause infections. The drug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa may relate to the production of broad spectrum beta lactamase enzymes. This study aimed to detect multidrug resistant, extensively drug resistant and pan drug resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to determine the frequency of extended spectrum beta lactamases enzymes by using a reliable test for detection blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2 and blaCTX-M3 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical samples, including sputum, wound, burn and urine. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility test were made by VITEK® 2 automated system. Identification confirmed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. The bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and specific primers were used for detection blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2 and blaCTX-M3 genes. 62 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were obtained from 650 different clinical specimens (9.54 %). Of the 62 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, the highest resistances were related to the antibiotics of ticarcillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime and cefepime (100 %). However, the lowest resistance was observed to meropenem, imipenem (3.23 %), amikacin, ciprofloxacin (6.45 %) and gentamycin, tobramycin (19.35 %). Out of 62 bacterial isolates, 46 (74.19 %) were multidrugresistance strains, 2 (3.23 %) were extensive drug-resistance and no pan drug resistance was isolated. The gene frequency of blaCTX-M1 was 12 (19.35 %) and blaCTX-M2 5 (8.06 %), all specimens were negative for blaCTX-3 gene. This study highlights the increased prevalence of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The blaCTX-M genes provide Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an additional powerful resistance mechanism with potentially serious clinical implications, including limitation of the therapeutic options. The incidence of extended spectrum beta lactamases varies with geographic location and time.

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