In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Anaphyllum wightii Schott: An Endemic Plant of Southern Western Ghats
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, Kerala, India
Swapna Thacheril Sukumaran, Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, Kerala, India, E-mail: email@example.com
Inflammation is a protective mechanism offered by the body’s immune system after an injury, microbial infection, or any other physical or chemical damage. The role of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes in the inflammation process has been well established, and research works are focused on developing plant-based cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors that can provide potential anti-inflammatory drugs with no side effects. Even though there are previous reports suggesting the anti-inflammatory potential of the rhizome of the plant, no reports are available regarding the anti-inflammatory property of the leaves of Anaphyllum wightii. Hence the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Anaphyllum wightii and also to confirm the activity of rhizome in vitro. The anti-inflammatory action of the rhizome and the two morphological variants of leaves (broad and narrow leaves) of Anaphyllum wightii were determined by their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. In the case of the cyclooxygenase inhibition assay, the narrow leaf extract showed the least IC50 value (43.182 µg/ml), whereas the broad leaf extract showed the least IC50 (38.174 µg/ml) for the lipoxygenase enzyme. Thus the present study revealed that the leaf extracts of Anaphyllum wightii exhibit significant anti-inflammatory potential compared to that of the rhizome extract. Hence the leaves may contain promising anti-inflammatory agents that may provide potential drugs for treating chronic inflammatory diseases. Also, this study could detect the presence of Ursolic acid, a potential anti-inflammatory agent, in Anaphyllum wightii through high resolution liquid chromatograph mass spectrometeric and high performance thin layer chromatographic analyses.