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Neuroprotective activity of pongamia pinnata in monosodium glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in rats

Author(s): A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy1, NL Patel1, PC Gadad1, BC Koti1, UM Patel1, A. H. M. Thippeswamy1, DV Manjula2
1Department of Pharmacology, KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Hubli-580 031, India 2Department of Rasashashtra, Guttal Ayurvedic Medical College, Dharwad-580 001, India

Correspondence Address:
A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy Department of Pharmacology, KLE University's College of Pharmacy, Hubli-580 031 India E-mail: [email protected]

This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark in monosodium glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of monosodium glutamate 2 g per kg body weight daily for 7 days. Ethanol extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark (200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally after 1 h of monosodium glutamate treatment. Dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug for the comparison. The degree of protection was determined by various behavioural, locomotor, muscle grip activity, lipid peroxidation and measurement of antioxidant status of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Estimation of calcium, sodium and potassium ions in brain tissue and gamma aminobutyric acid level in serum was carried out. The histopathological study of brain tissue was also carried out. Treatment with Pongamia pinnata significantly improved monosodium glutamate-induced alteration in behavioural and locomotor activity and muscle strength. Significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed in Pongamia pinnata treated group. Further, Pongamia pinnata also significantly reduced the monosodium glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by decreasing the level of Ca +2 and Na + with concomitant increase in the level of K + . Serum gamma aminobutyric acid level was also increased in Pongamia pinnata treated animals. Further, the histopathological evidence supports the neuroprotective activity of Pongamia pinnata. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the ethanol extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata possesses significant neuroprotective activity in albino rats.

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