Phytotherapeutics in Colorectal Cancer with Emphasis on Target Molecular Signaling Pathways: A Review
Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641021, India
Poornima Kannappan, Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641021, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Colorectal cancer is a major global health concern in terms of incidence and mortality. Treatment strategies constitute conventional surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and innovative measures like targeted and immunotherapy. All these treatment options are associated with considerable side effects which demand an alternative regime with enhanced therapeutic efficacy, specificity and less toxicity. Phytomedicine or herbal therapeutics is an emerging trend, as medicinal alternative and botanicals constitute an immense treasure of bioactive principles in the form of secondary metabolites with significant pharmacological attributes. Phytochemicals like curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, lycopene, organosulphur compounds etc., are few among isolated herbal constituent proved to be effective against colorectal carcinogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo trials. These bioactive ingredients exert apoptotic, antimetastatic, antiangiogeneic and antiproliferiative properties by targeting various signaling pathways like Wnt/β-catenin, nuclear factor-kappa B, phosphoinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, resulting in up regulation and down regulation of associated target genes and proteins. Consolidation of the information in the present review highlights the significance of phytomedicine or herbal medicine in oncology therapeutics as conventional and innovative treatment options are associated with serious health hazards.