Therapeutic Potential of Pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) against Breast Cancer
Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Hanaa Mohammed Tashkandi, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia, E-mail: email@example.com
Breast cancer ranks as the second major cause for cancer-related female mortalities worldwide. The features such as family history, old age, late-aged menopause, early-aged menarche, estrogen-replacement treatments for longer periods and first childbirth at later-age are common breast cancer related risk factors. Studies have shown that pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) and its constituents can efficiently affect multiple signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cellular transformation, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, initiation of tumorigenesis and eventually suppressing the final steps of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pomegranate extracts have been reported to significantly downregulate the proliferation and expression of transcription factors or proteins which are involved in breast cancer cells. These activities may lead to the up-regulation of protective factors or suppression of the gene expression, receptors as well as regulatory factors and may be associated with the suppression of the development of new blood vessels as well. In this review we discussed the therapeutic role of pomegranate against breast cancer. In addition, we revised the bioactive constituents of pomegranate, nanoencapsulation of these compounds and its safety on health.