Uncovering the Role of Cow Urine as a Bioenhancer Investigated Towards Network Pharmacology
P. D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Education Campus, Anand, Gujarat 388421, India
Gayatri Dave, P. D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Education Campus, Anand, Gujarat 388421, India, E-mail: email@example.com
Traditional Indian medicine practice (Ayurveda) emphasized the role of "panchgavya" five products from Bos indicus for human welfare. Ayurveda classics "Sushruta Samhita", "Ashtanga Sangraha" alluded to the therapeutic potential of pristine cow urine as drug or drug ingredients. Compelling evidence exhibits the innumerable medicinal properties of cow urine; accordingly, this elixir can directly treat complex ailments such as leprosy, tuberculosis and fever. Also, the classics narrated many formulations that have utilized cow urine for the preparation of drugs, supplemented to enhance the potency. This practice is more empirical, and only a few pieces of experimental evidence supporting the claim are known. The associated mechanisms are poorly understood and so render its appeal to the limited mass. The study aims to investigate the bio-enhancer-like properties of cow urine toward network pharmacology. For that, 25 medicines having antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, enzyme inhibitors, and anti-inflammatory actions were selected as a reference. Network analysis for twenty chemotypes found in cow urine was carried out. First, through enrichment analysis, the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes and gene ontology terms were obtained. Second, we performed protein-protein interaction studies to screen more targets. Towards this, the drug-protein and cow urine-protein interaction networks are built separately and processed.