*Corresponding Author:
B. Mathalaimuthu
Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608002,India
E-mail: [email protected]
Date of Received 12 August 2021
Date of Revision 10 March 2022
Date of Acceptance 02 September 2022
Indian J Pharm Sci 2022;84(5):1116-1132  

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Abstract

Liver is an important part in human beings and plays a very important and major role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body. Further, hepatotoxicity is caused by different types of toxic chemicals, such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, paracetamol (C8H9NO2), thioacetamide (C2H5NS), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silymarin (C25H22O10), ethanol (C2H5OH) and excessive alcohol intake and microbes is well researched. The markedly available synthetic drugs to treat liver sickness in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Therefore, herbal medicines have become increasingly famous and their utilization is wide-spread. In medicinal plant derived drugs have been utilized in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time the protection of a healthy liver has been essential for the overall well-being of an individual. Liver injury induced by toxins is more common now-a-days. Herbal remedies are focused in the pharmaceutical industry to evolve a safe route for liver disorders and it is very low cost, no side effects compare with synthetic drugs. Therefore, hepatoprotective plants such as Avicennia alba, Anisochilus carnosus, Baliospermum montanum, Centella asiatica, Clitoria ternatea, Eclipta alba, Justicia adhatada, Phyllanthus emblica, Pisonia Grandis and Syzgium cuminiare were reviewed. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from medicinal plants that have tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system.

Keywords

Liver diseases, hepatotoxicity, hepatoprotective, medicinal plants, xenobiotics

Liver disease has a strong position as one of the chief health troubles in the world, with cirrhosis being the most drug-stimulated liver injury, according to the 9th most common cause of death in modern and developing countries[1]. However, it is caused by infectious agents or ingestion of toxic foods, chemical, over dose of drugs and chemicals that causes liver damage are called hepatotoxins[2,3]. It may have possible side effects of chronic medications or can be caused by chemicals, such as microcystins, as well as artificial chemicals like antibiotics, tetrachloride, chemotherapeutic agents, dimethyl nitrosamine, aflatoxin, Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), pyrrolizidine alkaloids, allyl alcohol, Thioacetamide (C2H5NS), biomobenzene[4,5].

Susceptibility of the liver to chemical attacks, which comes in close contact with many harmful substances, environmental pollutants, xenobiotics and chemotherapeutic agents could repress. However,maintaining a healthy liver is a challenge for overall health and well human being, and the treatment of such diseases by using artificial pharmaceuticals or by using separated main compounds or importance parts of indigenous medicinal plants utilized in popular medicine[6,7]. In spite of this, there are nevertheless few drugs used to treat liver diseases, with possible effects on humans[8,9]. Thus, important medicinal plants with hepatoprotective or curative process utilized for the therapy of hepatic disorders become important; mostly important subjects of studies to explain their mechanism of action and characterize the compounds that can be utilized for the increased of new hepatoprotective drugs[10-13]. Some experimental models are utilized to show the hepatoprotective action of certain medicinal plants, especially against C2H5NS stimulated liver damage[14,15].

Hepatotoxicity Agents

Several chemicals have been known to induce hepatotoxicity and CCl4, C2H5NS, C8H9NO2, C2H5OH and C25H22O10 are used to induce experimental hepatotoxicity in laboratory animals.

CCl4:

Liver injury due to CCl4 (fig. 1a) in rats was first reported in 1936 and broadly utilized by so many researchers[16,17]. CCl4 toxicity depends on dosage and the duration of exposure. In low dose, effects like loss of Ca2+ homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and release of cytokines are produced, and apoptotic events may be generated, followed by cellular regeneration. Further, in high doses or if there is a longer exposure, the effects are more severe and the damage occurs during a longer period of time, the patient may develop fibrosis, cirrhosis, or even cancer[18], is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 dependent of monooxygenases, mainly through the CYP2E1 isoform in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria[19]. Hepatotoxicity is produced by the formation of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl3) (fig. 1b), which is highly reactive. These radicals may saturate the organism’s antioxidant defense system, react with proteins, attack unsaturated fatty acids, generating lipid peroxidation, reduce the amount of cytochrome P450, which leads to a functional failure with the consequent lowering of protein and accumulation of triglycerides (fatty liver), and alter water and electrolyte equilibrium with an increase of hepatic enzymes in plasma[20]. Lipid peroxidation leads to a cascade of reactions, such as the destruction of membrane lipids, the generation of endogenous toxic substances, which originate more hepatic complications and functional anomalies. For this reason, lipid peroxidation is considered a critical factor in the pathogenesis of liver injuries induced by CCl4[21]. The inhibition of the radical CCl3 generation is a key point in the protection against the damage generated. Because of this, model is widely utilized for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals and natural products with hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity[22,23].

IJPS-structures

Figure 1: 3D structures of (a): CCl4and (b): CCl3

C2H5NS:

C2H5NS was particularly utilized as a fungicide to maintain agricultural citrus materials, later it was denied that is a strong potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen due to organo-sulfur-containing compound enriched with liver damaging and carcinogenic activities[24,9]. Currently, it is focused as a carcinogen, and very speedily metabolized into freebie radical derivatives such as C2H5NS sulfoxide, TAA-S-S-dioxide, even though it leads to lipid peroxidation, thus eventually culminates in centrilobular damages and liver injuries[15]. Earlier studies have also demonstrated that, rodents intoxicated with C2H5NS (fig. 2) was caused such as fibrosis, liver injury, cirrhosis and steatosis in test animals of this disease with etiology, and pathology comparable equal to the one seen in humans[25-27].

IJPS-NS

Figure 2: 3D structure of C2H5NS

However, C2H5NS was recognized as an exemplary of liver fibrosis in rats. Though in the present scenario, the broadly utilized treatment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is inadequate; thus there is no effectively broadly utilized therapy that can prevent the improvement of hepatic diseases is explained. Despite, newly improved drugs have been utilized to heal liver diseases; presently these drugs have abundant side effects. There is an urgent need for alternative deputing remedies or drugs, to the treatment of chronic liver disorders to change current drugs of uncertain safety and non-effectiveness[28]. Liver markers are found of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Transaminases, APT, Gamma (γ)-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), lipids, bilirubin, cholesterol and proteins are discharged in the blood. As a result of cell leakage and the measurement of the serum markers of the liver could be utilized for diagnosis of injuries[29]. Many products available commercially are from herbal origin, and herbal elements and dietary supplements have power as possible choice medicines for the therapy of chronic liver diseases and associated metabolic derailments[30,31].

C8H9NO2:

C8H9NO2, (fig. 3) is a widely used analgesic, antipyretic drug and hepatocellular injury through three mechanisms, independently or in association. It produces acute liver damage in high doses[5] and is a widely used experimental model of clinical importance as an example of drug-induced liver damage[20]. At therapeutic doses, it is mainly metabolized to glucuronic or sulfated and excreted derivatives, the rest metabolizes to intermediate reactives, which are eliminated by conjugation with glutathione. The 1st and most common mechanisms is ingestion of doses higher than 10 g by adults and up to 150 mg/kg by children, popularly known as “overdose” and 2nd is the cytochrome P450 at N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone (NAPQI), which quickly attaches to glutathione, resulting from the use of enzyme inducing drugs and chronic alcohol abuse, 3rd occurs with glucagon depletion in hepatocytes through alcohol intake or malnutrition[32]. Under excessive conditions of NAPQI and glutathione depletion, a covalent bond of metabolite to proteins, adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress occurs. The result is necrosis or hepatocellular death[33].

IJPS-NO

Figure 3: 3D structure of C8H9NO2

C2H5OH:

The liver is the most susceptible organ to the toxic effects of C2H5OH (fig. 4). Damage mechanism is due to the metabolism of ethanol by the CYP2E1 isoform of the cytochrome P450 producing oxidative stress with the generation of reactive species of oxygen and the increase of lipid peroxidation, leading to the alteration of the compositions of phospholipids of the cellular membrane[34]. Membrane lipid peroxidation results in the loss of its structure and integrity, elevating serum levels of glutamyl-transpeptidase, a membrane bonding enzyme. C2H5OH inhibits glutathione peroxidase; it reduces the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase[20]. The decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase glutathione is believed to come as a result of the harmful effects of free radicals produced after exposure to C2H5OH or alternatively, they could be a direct effect of acetaldehyde, a product of C2H5OH oxidation[35].

IJPS-OH

Figure 4: 3D structure of C2H5OH2

C25H22O10:

C25H22O10 (fig. 5) is an important component of Silybum marianum. Thus, it has been evidenced to be mostly hepatoprotective and has been utilized for the therapy of abundant liver disorders such as cirrhosis, fatty acid infiltration due to alcohol and toxic chemicals, and hepatitis, it’s specifically characterized by functional impairment or deterioration of necrosis[36]. However, it’s mechanisms of the process is not entirely understood, it appears that it acts in various ways, including anti-inflammatory activities and antioxidant, membrane stabilizer, cell permeability regulator, inhibiting the deposition of collagen fibers and stimulating liver regeneration, which may lead to cirrhosis[37].

Liver function markers:

Functions performed by the liver, there is a wide range of markers through which we are able to determine the functionality or damage generated by this organ or its cells[38]. Although there is no biochemical marker specific to liver damage, the combination of several of these and knowing the correlation they have with the liver, will help to better interpret the results of the hepatoprotective models. Markers can be divided into tests related to the liver’s excretory function (bilirubin), tests related to synthetic function (albumin and prothrombin time) and tests related to the integrity of hepatocytes (APT, Alkaline Phosphatase and GGT).

Hepatoproctive Plants

The medicinal plant plays a key role in the human health care. About 80 % of the world population relies on the use of traditional medicine which is predominantly based on plant materials[39]. Traditional medicine refers to a wide range of ancient natural health care practices including folk/tribal practices as well as Ayurveda, Siddha, Amchi and Unani. These medicinal plant practices originated from time immemorial and developed gradually, to a large extent, by relying or based on practical experiences without significant references to modern scientific principles. This estimated that about 7500 plants are used in local health traditional in, mostly, rural and tribal villages of India. Out of these, the real medicinal plant value of over 4000 plants is either little known or hitherto unknown to the mainstream populations. This is classical system of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Amchi, Unani and Tibetan use about 1200 plants[40,41]. Plants based therapeutics for liver diseases has been used in India for a long time and has been popularized world over by leading pharmaceuticals. The despite their important popularity several plant medicines in general and for liver diseases in particular they are still unacceptable treatment modalities for the liver diseases. Medicinal plant remedies are focused in the pharmaceutical industry to evolve a safe route for liver disease (Table 1). Hence, in this review we focused on some medicinal plants such as Avicennia alba, Anisochilus carnosus, Baliospermum montanum, Centella asiatica, Clitoria ternatea, Eclipta alba, Justicia adhatada, Phyllanthus emblica, Pisonia grandis, Syzgium cumini.

S.No. Plant/Tamil name Family Part used Constituents Hepatotoxicity inducing agents
1 Aegle marmelos (Tamil name-Vilvam) Rutaceae Leaves Saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids and tannins C8H9NO2
2   Agrimonia eupatoria Rosaceae Whole plants β-sitosterol, betalain andneoandrographolide C2H5OH
3 Aerva lanata Linn (Serupeelai) Amaranthaceae Coarse powder plant material Alkaloids-β-carboline-1 -propionic acid, 6-methoxy-β carboline-1-propionic acid, 6-methoxy-β-carbolin-l-ylpropionic acid (ervolanine) and aervolanine (3-(6-methyoxy-β-carbolin-1-yl) propionic acid) Flavanoids-Kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-[4-p-coumaroyl-α-rhamnosyl, galactoside and flavanone glucoside persinol C8H9NO2
4 Acacia confusa Leguminosae Bark Flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and phenolic diterpenes CCl4
5 Agrimonia eupatoria Rosaceae Whole plants β-sitosterol, betalain andneoandrographolide C2H5OH
6 Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Kattalai) Liliaceae Aerial part Flavanoids, hydroxyanthraquinones and coumarin CCl4
7   Alchornea cordifolia Euphorbiaceae Leaves Saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins and flavonoids C8H9NO2
8 Andrographis paniculata (Tamil name-Nilavembu) Acanthaceae Leaf, aerial parts Andrographolide, bicyclic diterpene, lactone, kalmegh, andrograholide C8H9NO2
9 Artemisia absinthiumL. (Tamil name-Masipathiri) Asteraceae Aerial parts,leaf Tricyclene, α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-phellandrene CCl4
10 Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. Compositae Aerial parts 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, chrysanthenol (and its acetate), α/β-thujones and camphor C8H9NO2
11 Astragalus polysaccharides Magnoliaceae Dried fruits Flavonoids, non-protein, amino acid, saponins, alkaloids, nitro chemically compounds, mucilage, sterols, proline content and phenolics CCl4
12 Asteracantha longifolia L. (Neermulli) Acanthaceae Leaved axil, flower, root, seed Andrographolide C6H13NO5
13 Azadirachta indica (Vembu) Meliaceae Whole parts Azadirachtin, margolone, mono-, di-, sesqui- and triterpenoids, coumarins, chromones, lignans, flavonoids and other phenolics C8H9NO2
14 Baliospermum montanum (Tamil name-Nakatanti) Euphorbiaceae Root Alkaloids, phenols, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, terpenoids, resinsand glycosides C8H9NO2
15 Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum Connaraceae Leaf Alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phlobatannins, reducing sugars and saponins CCl4
16 Bauhinia variegata L. Leguminosae Stem bark Terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, reducing sugars, steroids and cardiac glycosides CCl4
17 Cassia toraL. (Thangarai) Caesalpiniaceae Leaves, seeds Alkaloids, steroids and phlobatannins, phenolics and flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides and tannins CCl4
18 Citrus limonL. Burm. (Elumichai) Rutaceae Fruits Coumarins, flavonoids, carotenes, terpenes and linalool CCl4
19 Cleome viscoseLinn Capparidaceae Leaf powder Alkaloids, flavonoids and fatty acids are the major active constituents of this genus, six main flavonoid gycosides such as kaempferol, chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, chrysoeriol-7-O-xylosoid, kaempferol-3-galactorhamnoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-dapio-furanosyl and β-D-galactopyranoside C8H9NO2
20 Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Rhizome Curcumin, turmerone, monoterpenes, 5% curcuminoids, minerals, carotene and vitamin C C8H9NO2, C14H11Cl2NO2
21 Chamomile capitula Compositae Whole parts α-bisabolol, α-bisabolol oxide A and B, chamazulene, sesquiterpenes; coumarins: umbelliferone; flavonoids: luteolin, apigenin, quercetin and spiroethers: en-yn dicycloether C8H9NO2
22 Cuscuta reflexaRoxb Cuscutaceae Whole plant Scoparone, melanettin, quercetin hyperoside, luteolin, dulcitol, luteolin and glycoside C8H9NO2
23 Cassia occidentalis Caesalpinaceae Whole plant Alkaloids, aaponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, fixed oils and fats, aminoacids, flavanoids, anthraquinones, tannins and phenolic compounds C8H9NO2
24 Capparis spinosa Capparidaceae Root, bark Isorhamnitine-3-O rutinoside, 1 tetradecanol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone,  ursolic acid, glycerol monotetracostanoate, 4-coumaric acid, nicotinamide, methyl hexadecanoate, sitosterol, sitosterylglucoside, cadabicine, octadecanoic acid, rutin and stachydrine CCl4
25 Clerodendrum inerme Verbenaceae Leaves Phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, diterpenoids and iridoids CCl4
26 Decalepis hamiltoniiWight. Asclepiadaceae Root 4-Omethylresorcylaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, β-caryophyllene and α-atlantone. Aromatic aldehydes, monoterpene, hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones, β-phellandrene and trans-anethole CCl4
27 Diospyros malabaricaKostel. Ebenaceae Bark Tannins, Triterpenoid compounds such as α-amyrin, uvaol, ursolic acid, 19α-hydroxyursolic acid and 19α, 24-dihydroxyursolic acid CCl4
28 Diplotaxis acris Boiss. Compositae Seeds Tannins, saponins, sterols and/or triterpenes, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, lactones/esters, protein and/or amino acids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides CCl4
29 Equisetum arvense Equisetaceae Aerial parts Phenolic petrosins, onitin and onitin-9-O-glucoside, flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside CCl4
30 Embelia ribes Myrsinaceae Fruits Reducing sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, rides, gums, mucilage, proteins, amino acids, fats and oils, steroids, glycosides, saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and volatile oil C8H9NO2
31 Garcinia mangostana Clusiaceae Whole plant Methylparaben, methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, parvifoliol A1, methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin and xanthone, mangostin C8H9NO2
32 Gundelia tourenfortii Asteraceae Fresh edible stalk Steroid and triterpenoids, phenolic and tannins, flavonoids, saponin, alkaloid, anthraquinone, glycoside and protein CCl4
33 Glycyrrhiza glabraL. Leguminosae Glycyrrhizin from root Saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, phlobatannins and phenolic compounds CCl4
34 Grewia tiliaefoliaVahl. Tiliaceae γ-lactones from stem bark Triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, flavones, lignanes, phenolics, alkaloids, lactones and organic acids CCl4
35 Halenia elliptica Gentianaceae Whole plant Xanthones, xanthone glycosides, chromones  flavonoids, secoiridoid glycosides, triterpenoid alkaloids CCl4
36 Hygrophila auriculataHeine. Acanthaceae Root Seed contain yellow colour oil, diastase, lipase, protease, salts of potassium and mucilage CCl4
37 Indigophora tinctorea (Avuri) Fabaceae Whole plant Inorganic salts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, lime, potash along with apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, seed-galactomannan, galactoss, mannose C8H9NO2
38 Justicia simplexD. Don. Acanthaceae Whole plant Alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids, amino acids, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoid and steroids CCl4
39 Juncus subulatus Juncaceae Powdered tubers Flavonoids, coumarines, terpenes, stilbenes, sterols, phenolic acids, carotenes, phenanthrenes derivatives. C8H9NO2
40 Kyllinga nemoralis L. Cyperaceae Rhizome Alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenols, tannins and steroids CCl4
41 Kalanchoe pinnataPers (Runa kalli) Crassulaceae Leaves Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, glycosides, bufadienolides, saponins, coumarins, sitosterols, quinines, carotenoids, tocopherol and lectins CCl4
42 Kigelia africana Bignoniaceae Leaves Flavanoids, steroidal saponins, napthoquinones and volatile constituents C8H9NO2
43 Laggera alata(D. Don) Sch.-Bip. Whole plant Triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, sterols and saponins CCl4
44 Ligustrum robustumRoxb. Oleaceae Leaves Terpenoids, saponins, polyphenols (especially flavonoids), glycosides and many other compounds CCl4
45 Luffa echinata Cucurbitaceae Fruits Lucosides C, E, F, H, a mixture of alpha-spinasterol, alpha-spnisteryl glucoside, stigmasteryl-beta-D-glucoside and methyl ester CCl4
46 Lactuca sativa Asteraceae Whole plants Ursolic acid , stigmasterol, sitosterol, b-sitosterol galactoside, herniarin and 2,4,6-trihydroxyethylbenzoate CCl4
47 Macrotyloma uniflorum   Seeds Flavanoids and tannins C6H13NO5, C8H9NO2, C25H22O10
48 Moringa oleiferaLam. (Murungai maram) Moringeaceae Seed Hydrocarbons, hexacosane, pentacosane, heptacosane, pentacosane hexacosane, (E)-phytol, thymol, hexanoic acid, acetic acid, nonacosane, 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene CCl4
49 Myrtus communis Linn Myrtaceae Leaves Flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids C8H9NO2
50 Momordica dioica Cucurbitaceae Leaves Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, coumarins, quinones, organic acids and alkaloids CCl4
51 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Nelumbonaceae Leaves Glucose, tannin, fat, resin, metarbin, alkaloid nelumbine CCl4
52 Ocimum snctum(Thulasi) Lamiaceae Leaves Alkaloids, tannin, saponin, steroid phlobatannin, terpenoid, flavonoid, cardiac, glyceride C8H9NO2
53 Ptrospermum acerifolium Sterculiaceae Leaves Alkaloid, tannin, saponin, flavonoid, cardiacglycosides, sterols, anthroquinone, glycosides, carbohydrates and protein CCl4
54 Petroselinum Crispum(Mill.) Umbelliferae Leaves Alkaloid, carbohydrate, phenolic compound, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, amino acids and saponins CCl4
55 Pergularia daemia Forsk. Asclepiadaceae Aerial part Cardenolides, alkaloid, saponins and steroidal compounds, fixed oil, volatile oil, resin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, carissol, carissic acid and ursolic acid CCl4
56 Phyllanthus niruriL. Euphorbiaceae Aerial parts Phyllanthin, niranthin, hypophyllanthin, alkaloid, lignas, vitamin-C, quercetin, astrogaln, querscitrin, rutin, glucoflavon, linoleic, linolenic, acid Coumarins, tannins and polyphenols, gallic acid, ellagic acid, brevifolin, carboxylic acid, ethyl brevifolin, carboxylate, methyl brevifolin, carboxylate, lizuka, geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthusiin D  amariin, amariinic acid, elaeocarpusin, geraniinic acid B, repandusinic acid, Amarulone, Furosin, 1,6-Digalloyl glucopyranoside, catechin, Epicatechin, gallocatechin,epigallocatechin, epicatechin 3-o-gallate, epigallocatechin 3-o-gallate C6H13NO5, C8H9NO2
57 Plantago majorL. Plantaginaceae Seeds Total phenol, flavonoid and tannin CCl4
58 Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC. Campanulaceae Saponins derived from root Steroidal saponins, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, sterols, phenolics and other bioactive compounds CCl4
59 Pracparatum mungo   Fermented product Essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber and fatty acids CCl4
60 Pterocarpus marsupiumRoxb. Papilionaceae Stem bark Protein, pentosan, mucilage, pterosupin, pseudobaptigenin, liquiritigenin, garbanzol, beta-cudesmol, pterostil-bene, marsupol, carpusin, proterol, marrsupinol, parsupin, oleanolic, tannins and ksinotanic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, epicatechin, and rutin, phytol, 1H-indene, 1-ethylideneoctahydro-7 a-methyl-, (1E,3a.alpha.,7a.beta.), 2H-1-Benzopyran,6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl, Inositol,1-deoxy, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-methoxy-3-2-propenylphenol-, 2-Ethylacridine, Delta-selinene and Fatty acids CCl4
61 Punica granatum Linn. (Maathulai) Punicaceae Whole plant triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates and vitamin C CCl4
62 Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae   Volatile oils, chitranone, alpha and beta amyrin, lupeol, taraxasterol, fructose, glucose, invertase, protease, chloroplumbagin, droserone, ellipticine, zeylanone, zeylone, meritone, catechol, tannin, amino acids, plumbagic acid C8H9NO2
63 Physalis minima Solanaceae Whole plant Alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, quinones, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, starch, tannins and terpenoids C8H9NO2
64 Pseudarthria vicida Fabacea Roots Leucopelargonidin C8H9NO2
65 Phyllanthus emblica(Perunelli) Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Protein, fats, fibres, carbohyderates, vitamin-C, nicotinic acid, tannins, gallic acid, ellagic acid, flavin and glucose, linolenic acid, oleic acid C8H9NO2
66 Quercus aliena Blum. Fagaceae Whole plant Tannins, polyphenols, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid CCl4
67 Rhodococcum vitisIdaea Linn Ericaceae Leaves Amyrin acetate, mixture of amyrins, β-sitosterol, scopoletin, iridoids, isoplumericin, plumieride, plumieride coumarate, plumieride coumarate glucoside C6H13NO5
68 Rhoicissus tridentate Wild. Vitaceae Root Phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins CCl4
69 Rheum emodi Wall (Reval senni) Polygonaceae Whole plants Anthraquinones, anthrones, stilbenes, oxanthrone ethers and esters, flavonoids, lignans, phenols, carbohydrates, oxalic acids, anthraquinones includes rhein, chrysophanol, Aloe-emodin, emodin, physcion (emodin monomethyl ether), chrysophanein and emodin glycoside. Stilbene includes picetannol, resveratrol and their glycosides CCl4
70 Ricinus Communis (Aamanakku) Euphorbiaceae Leaves Steroids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides. Dried leaves: Alkaloids, ricinine and N-demethylricinine, flavones glycosides, kaempferol-3-O, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-lucopyranoside, kaempferol, O-β-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-β- monoterpenoids, gallic acid, quercetin, gentisic acid, rutin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and dihydroxystearic acids and also lipases and aricinine CCl4
71 Saururus chinensis Saururaceae Whole plant Isoflavons, saponins, phytosterols and phenols CCl4
72 Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae Stem heart wood Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids, essential oils from the pulp yielded carboxylic acids and esters, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, 9, 12, 15-octadecatrien-1-ol, hexadecanoic acid, furfural, 24-methylene cycloartanone, stigma-4en-3one, lignoceric acid, β-sitosterol and its β-D-glucoside, ß-amyrin, oeanolic acid, glycine, cystine, Serine, alanine and leucine, lignoceric acid, ß-sitosterol, glucoside CCl4
73   Sarcostemma brevistigma Asclepiadaceae Stem Bergenin, brevine, brevinine, sarcogenin, sarcobiose and flavonoids CCl4
74 Sesbania grandiflora L. Fabaceae Whole plant Sterols, saponins, and tannins C2H5NS and C13H23ClN4O3S
75 Sesbania sesbanMers Fabaceae Leaf, Bark, Seed Alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, phytosterol, flavonoids, fixed oil cholesterol, campesterol, galactomannan, D-galactopyranoside C2H5
76 Schisandra chinensis Schisandraceae Leaves Lignans, schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin. C6H13NO5
77 Schouwia thebaica Arecaceae Aerial parts Tannins, saponins, sterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, lactones/esters, protein, amino acids and carbohydrates, glycosides CCl4
78 Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae Whole plant Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, tannins and saponins CCl4
79 Solanum nigrum (Manathakkali ) Solanaceae Fruits, leaves Steroidal components, withanolides, Flavonoids, terpenoids C2H5NS, CCl4
80 Strychnos potatorum Linn. Loganiaceae Seed Norharmane, akuammidine, Nor-C-fluroiocuraine, ochrolifuanine, Bis nor Dihydro toxiferine, 11-Methoxy- Henningsamine, 11-methoxy-12 hydroxydiabolin and 11-Methoxydiabolin CCl4
81 Swertia chirata Gentianaceae Whole plants Carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and tannins C6H13NO5, C8H9NO2
82 Syzygium cuminiL. Myrtaceae Leaves Friedelin, kaempferol, tannins, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, betullinic acid, anthocyanin acid, eugin, ellagic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, glycolic acid, glucose, fructose, gallic acid, glycine, alanin, leucin, tyrosin CCl4
83 Spermacoce hispida Rubiaceae Seed Borreline, β-sitosterol, ursolic acid and isorhamntin CCl4
84 Taraxacum officinale Asteraceae Root Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds CCl4
85 Tecomella undulata Bignoniaceae Stem, Bark Alkaloids, steroids, volatile oil, fat, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin and flavonoids C2H5OH and C8H9NO2
86 Terminalia arjunaRoxb Combretaceae Bark Beta-sitosterol, arjunic acid, friedlene, glucoside, tannins, sugars, sodium, magnessium, aluminium, calcium carbonate CCl4
87 Terminalia catappaL. (Combretaceae) Combretaceae Leaves Tannins, sugars, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, calcium carbonate CCl4
88 Thunbergia laurifoliaLinn. Acanthaceae Leaves, aerial part Benzyl alcohol glucosides , Iridoid glucoside, two aliphatic alcohol glucosides  and two flavonoid C-glucosides C2H5OH
89 Trigonella foenumgraecum (Venthayam) Fabaceae Leaves, seeds Fibers, flavonoids, polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids and polysaccharides fixed oils alkaloids C22H19Br2NO3
90 Tridax procumbensLin (Vettukaaya poondu) Asteraceae Leaves Steroid like saponin, coumarins, alkaloids, amino acids, diterpenes, phenol whereas Flavonoids like tannin, anthocyanin, emodins, proteins, phytosterol, phlobatannin, C6H13NO5
91   Trichosanthes cucumerinaL. Cucurbitaceae Whole plant Cucurbitacin B, Cucurbitacin E, Isocucurbitacin B, 23,24-Dihydroisocucurbitacin B, 23,24-Dihydrocucurbitacin E, Sterols 2 β-sitosterol Stigmasterol CCl4
92 Vernonia amygdalina Astereaceae Leaves Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenols, β-carotenoids, cyanogenic glycosides and steroids CCl4
93 Vigna unguiculataL.Walp (Karamani in tamil) Fabaceae Seeds Carotene, thiamine. riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C, tripsin inhibitors as A2a,A2b,A2c,A2d,A2e; phytohemagglutinin, α-cedrene,1,8-cineole, hexanal, limonene, nonanal, α-pinene and β-pinane. C8H9NO2
94 Vitis viniferaL. (Thirachai) Vitaceae Leaves Phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, sugars, sterols, amino acids and minerals CCl4
95   Vitex trifolia (Moovilai nochi) Verbenaceae Leaves Alkaloids, saponin, tannin, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids CCl4
96   Wedelia calendulacea Asteraceae Whole plant Flavonoids, wedelolactone C6H13NO5
97   Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Lythraceae Flowers Malvidin, pentose, glycosides, quercetin, Kaempferol-3-Glycoside, hecogenin, carotene, carbohydrates, insulin, 3 mannitol, lawsone, aspartic acid, protein, riboflavin, citric acid, punicaline, estrone CCl4
98 Xylopia aethiopica Annonaceae Fruit Mono and sesqui terpenes,a-pinene, myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol , R-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole are the most predominant. C8H9NO2
99 Zanthoxylum ArmatumDC. Rutaceae Bark Nitidine, dihydronitidine, oxynitidine, fagaronine, dihydroavicine, chelerythrine,  ihydrochelerythrine, methoxychelerythrine, norchelerythrine, oxychelerythrine, decarine and fagaridine), furoquinolines carbazoles , aporphines , canthinones, acridones and aromatic and aliphatic amides. CCl4
100 Zingiber officinaleRos. (Inchi) Zingiberaceae Rhizome Fibres, proteins, starch, carbohydrates, resin, glutamine, thrionin, free aminoacid, zingiberol, zingiberin, glutamic acid, aspartic acid C8H9NO2
101 Ziziphus mauritianaL. (Ilanthai) Rhamnaceae Leaves, fruits, bark Sugars, mucilage CCl4

Table 1: Hepatoprotective Plants with Chemical Constituents and Hepatotoxic Agents

Avicennia alba (Blume):

Avicennia alba, (Avicenniaceae family), is used in Indian system of medicine for the treatment of several types of conditions such as scabies, rheumatism, paralysis, asthma and snake-bites, skin disease and ulcer[42]. The plant is rich source of steroids, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins[43]. Recently, find the three naphthoquinones and their analogues, named avicequinone-A, avicequinone-B, avicequinone-C and avicenol-A, avicenol-B, avicenol-C respectively[44]. These are compounds isolated from the stem bark and isolated a new flavonoid, 2-[3'-(3"-(hydroxymethyl) oxiran-2"-yl)-2'-methoxy-4'-(methoxymethyl) phenyl]-4Hchromen-4-one from the aerial parts. Hepatotoxicity was induced by C8H9NO2 and this experiment was assessment by biochemical parameters such as AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), ALT and total bilirubin (serum bilirubin). The in vivo antioxidant such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, Glutathione, vitamin C and E, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and histopathological changes in liver were studied along with C25H22O10 as standard hepatoprotective agent[45]. Results of this study showed preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract shows the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, proteins and steroids. Treatment with plant extract to C8H9NO2 administered rats caused a significant reduction in the values of AST, ALP, ALT and total bilirubin almost comparable to standard drug C25H22O10. Hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathological assessment of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. In this research, it can be concluded that C2H5OH extract of leaves possess hepatoprotective effect[46].

Anisochilus carnosus (L) Wall.:

Anisochilus carnosus (Lamiaceae family) “karppura-valli” is an annual herb and has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders, cough, cold and fever[47]. Its popular herbal preparation together with Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita and Alpinia galanga is used against the symptoms of influenza, dermatitis and the slight illness that derives from the bites of bugs[48]. Essential oils have been extracted by hydro distillation from the leaves and have been reported to be antimicrobial in nature[49]. A pharmacological activity of this plant shows anti-inflammatory activity[50], antiulcer activity[51], antifungal property[52] and anticancer property[53]. Previously reported that, this plant shows phytochemicals active compounds such as saponins, tannins, flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin), phytosterols, triterpenoids and essential oil components (carvacrol, β-selinene, camphor, α-cis-bergamotene and caryophyllene) etc.,[54]. Analysis of leaf and leaf callus extracts was done by qualitative analysis and was used for hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol. This research results revealed that C2H5OH leaf extract pretreated HepG2-Human liver cancer cell line show 94 % cell viability compared to the standard C25H22O10 pretreated HepG2 cells which showed 81 % cell viability. This plant leaf callus extracts also showed significant hepatoprotective activity where C2H5OH callus extract pretreated HepG2 cells showed 86 % viability after intoxication with alcohol. Results revealed that HepG2 cell viability percentage is dose dependent. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of different secondary metabolites in leaf and leaf callus extracts that shows hepetoprotective activities[55].

Baliospermum montanum (Willd) Muell. Arg:

Baliospermum montanum (Euphorbiaceae family) “pey-amanakku” is one of the very important plant of Ayurveda being used for millennia as a purgative along with its wide-ranging health benefits and is useful against many more disorders. Danti has been explained in various classics as a major as well as minor ingredient of various formulations used in different diseases.

Single-handed information on the external application of usage of Danti is not available[56]. C2H5OH leaf extract gas chromatography mass spectrometric spectrum showed various phyto-constituents like Olean-12-ene, 3β-methoxy, α-amyrin, lanosterol, Lup-20 (29)-en-3-ol, acetate, betulin etc.,[57]. On the other hand, hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract from the roots of Baliospermum montanum and its methanol fraction were carried out using C2H5NS induced liver damage in albino rats. This study was assessed by glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein and albumin in serum. At the same time analyzed histopathology of liver sections confirmed that, pre-treatment with methanol extract and methanol fraction prevented hepatic damage induced by C2H5NS. It is suggested that, the presence of flavonoids in methanol extract and its methanol fraction may be responsible for hepatoprotective properties. HPTLC profile of flavonoids of bio-active extracts was developed using quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-7-O-rhamnoside as a marker. Methanolic extract of Baliospermum montanum has shown strong hepatoprotective activity[58].

Centella asiatica L.:

Centella asiatica (Apiaceae family), which is a slender, prostrate, glabrous, perennial creeping herb rooting at the nodes, with simple petiolate, palmately lobed leaves and it has various pharmacological activities like memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, wound healing, and immune-stimulant, anti-anxiety (anti-hypertensive), anti-stress and anti-epilepsy. Various health benefits of Centella asiatica have led to the amplified usage of this plant in food and beverages[59]. It has been extensively used for the treatment of ailments like inflammation, syphilis, mental illness, skin diseases, rheumatism, epilepsy, hysteria, diarrhea, wounds, dehydration and ulcers[60]. Aqueous extract of the plant aerial parts extracted from essential oil. Around 64 volatile compounds were identified from the essential oil p-cymene (35 %) is the predominant compound in the leaf essential oil, such as α-thujene, α-pinene, camphen, γ-2-carene, α-terpene, t-cymene, limonene, p-menth, 3,8-diene, c-terpinens, linalool, allo-ocimene, 3-non-2-one, menthone, methyl cavacrol, trans myrtenol, bornyl acetate, myrtenyl acetate, α-elemene, bicyoloelemens, nonanal, E-caryophyllene, guaiene, B-caryophyllene etc.,[61]. The protective effect of Centella asiatica is against C8H9NO2 liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity[62].

Clitoria ternatea L.:

Clitoria ternatea (Fabaceae family) “Kannikkodi” is a medicinal plant native to tropical equatorial Asia is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases[63]. The leaves and roots are used in the treatment of a number of ailments including body aches, infections, urinogenital disorders, and as an anthelmintic and antidote activity to animal stings. The young shoots, leaves, flowers and tender pods are eaten as a vegetable in Kerala (India) and in the Philippines. In Malaysia, the leaves impart a green color to food and the flowers to impart a bright blue color to rice cakes. It’s commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various types of ailments including memory enhancer, notropic, anti-stress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, tranquilizing and sedative agent. Various secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic flavonoids, anthocyanin glycosides, pentacyclic triterpenoids and phytosterols have been reported from this plant. Flavonoils i.e., kaempherols, quercetin and myricetin and their glycosides were also isolated from this plant[64]. Mass spectral analysis of leaf methanolic extract compounds, such as Butyl-2-methylpropylphthalate, Pentadecanoic acid ME, Decyloctylphthalate, 3-methylhexane, Cyclotetradecane, 2-methylpentane, Decyloctylphthalate, 3-methylhexane, Butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate, Isopropylbenzene etc.,[65] was carried out. Rats treated with Clitoria ternatea leaf extracts showed positive results in protecting themselves against damage caused by C8H9NO2. Interestingly, the treated group with Clitoria ternatea extracts was observed to possess a reduced level of enzymes such as AST, ALT and bilirubin compared to a raised level in AST, ALT, and bilirubin in C8H9NO2-treated group[66].

Eclipta alba (Linn):

The plant Eclipta alba (Family: Asteraceae) having important role in the traditional Ayurvedic, “Karisilanganni” Unani systems of holistic health and herbal medicine of the east, have reported to possess Hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune modulatory, antiviral and promoter for blackening and growth of hair. Important source of chemicals is wedelolactone, dimethyl wedelolactone exhibit antihepatotoxic activities. The traditional knowledge with its holistic and systematic approach supported through experimental base can serve as an innovative and powerful discovery of natural 5α-reductase inhibitor[67]. Eclipta alba having important role in the traditional Ayurvedic and Unani systems of holistic health and herbal medicine of the east. The principal constituents of Eclipta alba are coumestan derivatives like wedololactone (1.6 %), dimethyl wedelolactone, desmethyl-wedelolactone-7 glucoside and other constituents are ecliptal, ß-amyrin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, hentriacontanol, heptacosanol, stigmasterol. All the parts of Eclipta alba and chemical constituents are used as anticancer, anti-leprotic, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-cytotoxic, anti-haemorrhagic, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antibacterial, spasmogenic, hypotensive, hepatoprotective ovicidal, promoter for blackening and growth of hair[68]. Therefore, this plant plays a momentous role in medicinal field and it has promising cosmetic as well as therapeutic application and hence its extraction is essential. Root are analyzed by mass spectral analysis, and exhibit various phyto-constituents such as 2-Thiophenecarbaldehyde, 5-[5-(thien-2-yl)thien-2-yl]-Benzyl-beta-d-glucoside, Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid methyl ester, 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenyl)-,methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, Dodecanoic acid, Benzenepropanoic acid, 4-((1E)-3-Hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol, Retinol[69]. It’s significantly counteracted CCl4-induced inhibition of the hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. Further, the loss of hepatic is lysosomal acid, phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase by CCl4. The study shows the hepatoprotective activity[70].

Justicia adhatoda (L) Willd.:

Justicia adhatoda (Family: Acanthaceae) with the common name ‘‘Adathoda” is a perennial shrub, and mainly consist of quinazoline alkaloids like visicine, vasicinone, vasicol, pregnane along with other minor constituents like adhatonine, vasicinol and vasicinolone[71]. Extracts have been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders in Ayurveda and tuberculosis[72]. Justicia adhatoda leaf extract is a known antioxidant and has also been reported to possess hepatoprotective activity[73]. The present study has been undertaken to explore the hepatoprotective action of isolated vasicinone from the leaves in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis shows alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, hydroxyanthraquinones, phlobatannins, proteins, xanthoprotein, amino acids, steroids, terpenoids, phenols, volatile oil, fatty acid, emodins[52]. Justicia adhatoda leaf showed significant hepatoprotective effect at doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg on liver damage induced by D-galactosamine in rats[74].

Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.):

Phyllanthus emblica (Family: Euphorbiaceae). All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes; especially the fruits are found having tremendous pharmacological applications. They are used both as a medicine and as a tonic to build up lost vitality and vigor, and it is highly nutritious, important dietary source of vitamin C, amino acids and minerals. In traditional medicine, the fruits are used for the treatment of diarrhea, jaundice and inflammation. Further, they also showed antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, and chemopreventive properties[75]. Phenolic components were find out from Phyllanthus emblica leaf, flower, fruit by column chromatography and associated with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. It is acknowledged that gallotannins are the major phenolic constituents of leaf, flower and fruit. The NMR data with the literature led to identification of compounds such as mucic acid 1,4-lactone-5-O-gallate, 2-keto-glucono-lactone, 6-methyl ester[76]. The study also confirms the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of leaves of Phyllanthus emblica[77].

Pisonia grandis R.Br:

Pisonia grandis (Family: Nyctaginaceae). Leaves, stems and roots of this species are extensively used by the tribes in the preparation of several folk medicines and is traditionally used as anti-rheumatic and antifungal. It is also pharmacologically studied for its anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, diuretic, analgesic and wound healing properties[78], then phytoconstituents such as protein, carbohydrate, sterols, alkaloids, flavanoids, quinones, fatty acids, tannins, terpenoids, phenols, saponins, glycosides, coumarin, xanthoproteic acid etc.,[79] from the C2H5OH extract. The C2H5OH and aqueous extracts of leaves are screened for its hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by CCl4, C8H9NO2 or C2H5NS and chronic liver damage induced by CCl4 in rats. Pretreatment of animals with the extract reduced inflammation and degenerative changes. Histological examination of liver tissues supported the hapatoprotection by both the extracts and thus the C2H5OH and aqueous extracts showed significant hepatoprotective activity in CCl4 induced acute and chronic liver damage[75].

Syzygium cumini (L.) Naval:

Syzgium cumini (Family: Myrtaceae), gives the authority of due to the presence of the various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids and tannins. Biochemical analysis and histopathology were achieved by collecting the blood samples and liver tissues. The methanol extracts of plant seed shows significantly increase the serum protein and decrease the enzyme level in control and treated groups as compared to that of the CCl4 treated group. The hepatic tissues protected by the extract of seeds in both the doses and C25H22O10 from CCl4 induced stress which indicates by histological examination of liver tissues. It was concluded that extract of seed has hepatoprotective activity[52].

Some studies were carries out for the presence of anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ulcers, anti-diarrheal and anti-microbial activities. It contains anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin[16]. Photochemical analysis of this plant identified gallic acid, cyanidin glycoside, glycoside jambolin, triterpenoids, tannins, gallotanins, essential oils, myricetin, β-sitosterol, myricyl alcohol etc.,[80]. Leaves and seeds from aqueous extracts (LASc, SASc, respectively) as well as their effect in a 2,2 azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced model of oxidative damage in human lymphocytes, in vitro[79].

Conclusion

This review results exhibit Syzgium cumini has protective and immune-modulatory effects on AAPH-induced damage in lymphocytes, assessed by in vitro studies. The protective effect of these indigenous medicinal plant extracts against CC14, C8H9NO2, and C2H5NS may be related to polyphenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, coumarines, phytosterols. Polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids can protect the cells against emptying reduced glutathione via increasing the capability of antioxidant enzymes, and shows antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging and anti-lipoperoxidant agent is helpful for hepatoprotection. Furthermore, these phytocompounds with antioxidant properties can counteract free radicals in the environment and therefore avoid their destructive effects. Terpenoids such as carotenoids with anti-hepatotoxic activity are also known as antioxidants. Ursolic acid is a triterpene, with potential hepatoprotective effects. Therefore, herbal medications should be recommended within the setting of more finely-conducted clinical trials, in spite of, better training of both patients and physicians about herbal preparations seems necessary.

Acknowledgments:

The authors are would like to acknowledge the help and support stretched by the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu, India.

Conflict of interest:

The authors report no conflict of interest in this work.

References